Wednesday, October 14, 2009

Track Record of Anoa's Population

Smith (1827) cited by Mustari (2003) is the first researcher who described species of anoa (Antelope/Bubalus depressicornis) according to the skull of anoa in the British’s museum. Species of Bubalus quarlesi refer to Mustari (2003) was identified by Ouwen and reported in the year of 1910. Groves (1969) recommended that anoa’s skeleton described by Smith is anoa from the low land area. Refer to Groves (1969), in Sulawesi island there are two type of anoa, low land anoa (Bubalus depressicornis) and mountain/high land anoa (Bubalus quarlesi).

Both species are classified as endangered by the IUCN (2001). It has been estimated that there are around 5000 individuals left in the wild. Anoa populations are decreasing, however. Hunting for meat by locals and habitat loss are the main threats to anoa survival, the former being the most serious threat. Habitat degradation is causing populations to be fragmented as forest is cleared around protected areas. Anoas are threatened with local extinction in small reserves, and populations continue to decline in larger protected areas such as Lore Lindu National Park, primarily due to hunting.

Until the end of 19th century, anoa still can be found in almost Sulawesi island. Heller (1889) recommended that anoa found in Gorontalo, arround Minahasa, Likupang, Lempias and in the forest between Langowan and Pangku. Mohr (1921) described that anoa spread of in north Sulawesi included Minahasa, Klabat, Cape of Tomini, Matinang and Randangan. Anoa in Central Sulawesi was found in arround Lake of Lindu, area of Besoa, Bada, Topebatu Toli-Toli Banggai and Tobungku. In the area of South Sulawesi recorded the existency of anoa arround Lake of Matana, Lake of Towuti and Lalangatu. Moreover, Mohr (1921) recommended that mountain anoa can be also found in south Sulawesi included in the area of Tana Toraja, Binuang, Palopo, mountainous of Bowonglangi, mountain Lompobattang and mountainous of Mandar. Harper (1945) wrote about the existency of anoa in Mamuju, Mamasa, Makale-Rantepao, Palopo, Buton, Kendari, Kolaka, Malili and Masamba.

Nowadays, anoa can not be found almost in that all area mentioned above. (Mustari, 1997). Refer to data of IUCN (2001) since 1979, surely anoa disapeared evenmore in such of area near the villages they are extinction. Red List Book of IUCN put anoa in status of “endangered”. Anoa recently only can be found deep inside the forest. In north Sulawesi recorded anoa in the area of National Park Dumoga Nani Warta Bone, Conservation Area of Panua and in the some of forest area. Anoa in Central Sulawesi still can be found in Besoa and Lore Lindu National Park (Sugiharta, 1994). The existence of anoa in southeast Sulawesi was found in forest conservation area in Kolaka Utara, Rawa Aopa National Park, Tanjung Peropa, Tanjung Batikolo, Tanjung Amolengu and North Buton in amount of 150 (Mustari, 2003).

Refer to the wikipedia (2007), nowadays there are only 3000 of anoa that still survive.


Groves, C.P. 1969. Systematics of the Anoa (Mammalia, Bovidae). Beaufortia Zoological Museum of University of Amsterdam. 17 (223): 1-12.

Heller, K.M. 1889. Der Urbuffel von Celebes, Anoa depressicornis (H. Smith). Versuch einer Monographie. Diss. Univ. Dresden. pp.41

IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources). 2001. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN Spesies Survival Commision. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Mohr, E. 1921. Die geographische Verbreitung der Anoa Arten auf Celebes. Arch. Naturgeschichte 87 (6):208-214.

Mustari, A.H. 1997. Kebutuhan Nutrisi Anoa (Bubalus sp.) di Kebun Binatang Ragunan Jakarta. Laporan Penelitian Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor. (Tidak dipublikasikan)

Mustari, A. H. 2003. Ecology and Conservation of Lowland Anoa (Bubalus depressicornis) in Sulawesi, Indonesia. PhD Dissertation. University of New England. Australia.

Sugiharta, A. 1994. Abundance and habitat characterization of mountain anoas in Besoa, Lore Lindu National Park, Indonesia. A thesis for the degree Master of Science. New Mexico State University. pp.47.

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